Brief history of Ukraine for those who go to Ukraine  

Precondition for formation of UkrainePechersk_Lavra 

Ukraine is situated on the lands which were earlier occupied by Skiffs who lived on a vast territory from the Black Sea to the North. In more remote times the territory of modern Ukraine was the home to antique civilization Trypillya. The evidences of Trypilska Culture are aptly found on the land and unequivocally point at the highest level of development to infer that Trypillya was one of the first and the most developed civilizations on the planet.

Princedom of Ancient Rus

The early development of modern Ukraine was in a form of Princedom (9th – 12th centuries). Regardless whether you come to Ukraine for the first time or you have already been here, you will hear the stories about Ancient Rus and Kievan Rus which are basically the same. In the centre of Ancient Rus was Kiev. Kiev was ruled by Dukes whose genetic line starts with Ryurik. Ryurik passed his name down to the generations, thus having started a dynasty of Ryurikovychi.

The times of glory and sorrow 

Kyi_KhoryvKyiv accomplished a great level of development in the period between 9th – 12th centuries. Ancient Rus with Kyiv as a center was considered to be a greatly developed country among other countries of Europe and even Vatican. Kyiv had library and the rulers of Ancient Rus were literate and knew how to read and write. Admirably, not only the rulers, but the women and their daughters were literate too.

Invasion of Tatar-Mongols in 1240 put the end to the flourishing times of Ancient Rus and halted the development of future Ukraine for generations. In 1240 tataro-mogols literally leveled down Kyiv and the nearby areas. Every visitor who will come to Ukraine and to Kyiv, in particular, will be able to see the fundament of ruins of the first Christian Church Desyatynna.

For some time the centre of Kyivan Rus shifted to its Western area, to Galychyna (Galytske Princedom). In the period from the 13 to 17 centuries Ukraine at different times was under the ruling of Poland, Moldova, Lithuania and Russia, plus it was constantly involved in and under the threat of Ottoman Empire. Even though Ukraine was separated from the Ottoman Empire by the Black Sea, Ottoman Empire had its satellite in the Crimea Peninsular. And Ukraine experienced constant threat from its side and its intermittent invasions during which the Ukrainian lands were robbed, women taken to slavery.

Alliance with Russia Vladymyr_hill

All this and other geopolitical circumstances among which not the least were Poland persistent claims for the territory, forced Bogdan Khmelnytsky, a former ruler of Ukraine, to sign in 1654 a strategic treaty with Russian tsar. According to the terms of this treaty, Ukraine conceded to the patronage and power of Russia while Russia undertook to protect integrity and lands of Ukraine.

However, the political situation in Russia and political methods of influence deployed by Russia was no better that time than today. As the historic evidence suggest, the terms and conditions of the treaty were misread and Russia constantly infringed certain conditions of the treaty until it completely subordinated Ukraine and opposed any thought of independence. For a long time Ukraine remained a province of Russian Empire and a part of Soviet Union up until the collapse thereof in 1991. The fall out of Soviet Union created opportunity for referendum which led to independence of many Soviet States, among which Ukraine was.

Archangel-Michael"The Times" about Ukraine

The European community has long been concerned about the influence Russia made upon the neighboring countries. Even in the first half of the past century the “Ukrainian question” was largely debated in London and the international society. Let the publications speak for themselves first.


"An Anglo-Ukrainian Committee has been formed in London to protect the interests of the Ukrainian people, who, it is pointed out in a statement issued last night, occupy a more or less contiguous block of territory, greater than that of France and Great Britain.....

now divided between the U.S.S.R., Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania. Very few attempts, it is stated, have been made to give justice to the Ukrainians, and the continued neglect of this complicated question may ultimately involve all Europe. The signatories: Lord Dickinson, Mrs. Dugdale, Ashe Lincoln, Mr. C. A. Macartney, Lieutenant-Colonel C. L Estrange Malone, Mr. Geottrey Noel-Buxton, Professor R.W. Sclon-Watsono and Miss Mary Sheepshanks."

Ukraine and its relations with Russia have always been filled with tension. Though Ukraine was nominally in the composition of Russia for the past 200 years, there are questions raised by some researches questioning even the fact of legitimacy of the complete patronage over the territory of Ukraine in the first place. Now there are no doubts left that emperialistic dominating style practiced  by Russian with persistence in relations to the neighboring counties is counterproductive and opposite to friendly. And it was known not yesterday. Ukrainian eminent political figures have many times pointed out at the fact that tenacious “friendship” and tight embrace in “friendly” Russia arms somewhat limit movements and sometimes obstruct breathing of Ukraine. However, there were and are many factors still keeping Ukraine within the field of gravity force of Russia. On the other hand, Russia needs Ukraine. It was Ukraine that influenced the initial development of Russia. Ukraine has the history which tarnishes Russian myth about “senior brother” and embarrasses self-assured and unconditional complex of “the first, the best and the strongest” empire which Russia has been cultivating for centuries. It is just unbearable for her that Ukraine is almost twice older, has been independent before Russia even existed, is independent and, finally, by its very existence Ukraine ruins the myth that Russia is the greatest among all the countries of Central-Eastern region.

What’s more interesting is different. In particular, it is the reaction of international society to Ukrainian problem. Apparently, international community has long time ago been aware of Ukraine and the situation of suppression its liberties, democracy and identity. And not only the suppression, but a sequence of measures obviously aimed at the complete destruction by one nation another nation.

THE TIMES (April 17, 1935)

RECEPTION Mrs. F. Ashe Lincoln

"Mr. and Mrs. F. Ashe Lincoln gave a reception at the Savoy Hotel yesterday to meet the members of the Anglo-Ukrainian Committee. The members of the committee are: Lard Dickinson, Lord Noel-Buxton, Colonel Josiab Wedrtwood, M.P. Leutenant-Colonel L'Estrange Malonc, Mr. Greoltrey Mander, M.P., Professor Scton Watson ...." 

There were other motives, however, searching more self-interest than the care for the opressed country.

THE TIMES (May 31, 1935)


"A meeting of the newly-formed Anglo-Ukrainian Committee was held at the House of Commons on Wednesday. The committee has been formed to watch the Ukrainian situation and to take any action which might be necessary. Mr. Lancelot Lawton said that the greater part of Ukraine lay in Soviet Russia, a large part was in Poland and a smaller section in Czeccoslovakia. The Ukrainians were desirous of forming a separate country. If they had their which they would be a great bulwark against Bolshevism in that part of the world as they had been made Bolshevists against their will."

Lancelot Lawton, the British journalist, was the one who brought the “Ukrainian question” up in the society. It looked unjust and remotely cast a threat to other European countries that Ukraine, being greater by the territory than Britain or France, was so severely and methodically eradicated. It was robbed off its history, language, talents, tangible and intangible values and, finally, the value above the all values, human and natural resources and historical memory.

In particular, these are his words "Ukrainians have all the rights to refer to Kievan Rus as the cradle of their nation. Factually, this territory started to be called Ukraine from the 12 century. Ukraine was the last frontier, outpost of Europe at the borders with Asia".

In the first part of the century Ukraine was quite popular in the headings of the mainstream newspapers and the “Ukrainian question” was considered on the governmental level of other countries.

It must be admitted, however, that in the face of wheat and food deficit in the 30th years in Europe and considering the fact that Ukraine (in the composition and total custody of the Soviet Union) was one of the key wheat suppliers, European leaders chose to step aside and “keep it mum”. To put it simple, they would prefer not to notice deliberate eradication of a whole nation as long as the wheat and the crops were aptly supplied by the USSR. And they bothered little to find out where the USSR took the wheat (90% of the wheat export that saved Europe from hunger in 32-33 years came from Ukraine) and whether there was enough left for the needs of the local population (Ukraine suffered the most from the hunger.).

Now the question is is Ukraine ready to defend and look for its own interests rather than always be "the last frontier of Europe at the borders with Asia"?