Medical / Медицина

From English into Russian

What is Cataract? Inside your eye is a natural lens that helps focus light from outside your eye. The lens creates images in the back of your eye (called the retina) like a camera focuses images on film (Figure 1). As people age, the lens can become less clear, even cloudy. This cloudiness in the lens is called a cataract. Just as a dirty camera lens can spoil a picture, a cataract can prevent light from focusing clearly inside the eye. Typical signs of cataracts are blurred vision and sensitivity to light. For example, you may have trouble reading, or driving at night or at dusk. Colors may seem less vivid and it may be difficult to thread a needle, shave or put on makeup.

Что такое катаракта? Внутренняя часть Вашего глаза, по сути, является естественной линзой, которая помогает фокусировать свет, поступающий через внешнюю оболочку Вашего глаза. Эта линза проецирует изображения на заднюю стенку Вашего глаза (которая называется сетчатка), точно так же, как видеокамера снимает изображение на пленку (Рисунок 1). С возрастом линза теряет свою чистоту и мутнеет. Это замутнение линзы и называется катарактой. Так же, как загрязненный объектив видеокамеры может испортить изображение, катаракта может препятствовать четкому фокусированию света внутри глаза. Типичными признаками катаракты является размытое зрение и чувствительность к свету. Например, у Вас могут возникать проблемы с чтением, вождением ночью или в сумерках. Цвета могут казаться менее яркими и Вы можете испытывать трудности при таких действиях, как продеванием нитки в ушко иголки, бритье или создание макияжа.

Translation of Methodological materials from Ukrainian into English

Children’s Infectious Diseases

  1. Induction. Actual problems of infection pathology in children.
  2. Clinical-epidemiological specifics, differentiated diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases followed by exanthema.
  3. Specifics of development of diphtheria in children. Differentiated diagnostics in cases with angina syndromes.
  4. Infectious diseases of nervous system (serious and purulent meningitis, encephalitis, meningococcosis infection). Poliomyelitis.
  5. Clinical-epidemiological specifics, differentiated diagnostics, treatment and prevention of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections in children. Croup’s syndrome. Emergency help.
  6. HIV in children. Epidemiology. Classification. Clinical syndromes of AIDS and opportunistic infections. Treatment. Prevention.
  7. Acute bowel invasive infections (shigellosis, salmonellosis, invasive colibacillosis, yersiniosis, acute bowel infections, caused by conditionally pathogenic microflora). Clinical-epidemiologic specifics, differentiated diagnostics. Treatment. Neurotoxicosis at ABI: pathogenesis, clinical picture and treatment).
  8. Acute secretory bowel infections (enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic colibacillosis, rotavirus infection, cholera ). Clinical-epidemiological specifics, differentiated diagnosis. Treatment. Toxicosis with exicosis at acute bowel infections: pathogenesis, clinical picture and treatment).
  9. Viral hepatitis in children. Specifics of development based on aetiology and age of a child. Clinical-epidemiological specifics, differentiated diagnosis. Repercussions. Treatment. Prevention.
  1. Scarlatina.
  2. Pseudotuberculosis.
  3. Measles.
  4. Chicken pox.
  5. Diphtheria of tonsils.
  6. Diphtheria of tonsils (continuation).
  7. Infectious mononucleousis.
  8. Whooping cough.
  9. Meningococcal infection.
  10. Influenza.
  11. Acute respiratory viral infections.
  12. Parotitis infections.
  13. Shigellosis.
  14. Colibacillosis.
  15. 15.Salmonelliosis.
  16. 16.Viral hepatitis in children.
  17. 17.Viral hepatitis in children (continuation).
  18. 18.Defence of a case history.



  1. Introduction. Aetiology, pathogenesis, classification, early diagnostics and clinical picture of pancreatic diabetes. Specific features of pancreatic diabetes in children and pregnant women. Diabetic angio- and neuropathies. Pathogenesis. Classification, diagnostics and treatment.
  2. Modern methods of treatment of pancreatic diabetes, perspective research of new methods of treatment of pancreatic diabetes. Complications intricate in treatment of pancreatic diabetes. Prevention of pancreatic diabetes.
  3. Emergency states of pancreatic diabetes, clinical pictures, diagnostics, differentiated diagnostics, treatment.
  4. Diffusive and nodular toxic goitre. Aetiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinical picture and specific features of toxic goitre in young and senior people, in men and pregnant women. Treatment of toxic goitre. Complications with toxic goitre, their diagnostics and treatment. Malignant tumours of thyroid gland, endemic and sporadic goitre, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment.
  5. Hypothyroidism. Aetiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinical picture and specific features of clinical development of congenital and secondary hypothyroidism; diagnostics, differentiated diagnostics and treatment. Impact of radioactive contamination of the environment on occurrence and development of diseases of the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis. Classification, clinical picture and treatment.